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Household Water Treatment Webliography 


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Recent studies show that simple, acceptable, low-cost interventions at the household level are capable of dramatically improving the quality of water stored in the home and reducing the risk of diarrheal disease. The purpose of this "webliography" is to provide links to current information on different methods of household water treatment. It will be updated on a regular basis. Please send an email to add a resource to the webliography and we welcome your comments and suggestions. 


  • Nepal - Pottery Water Purification Media
    Network linked to the International Development Enterprises Nepal
    providing information on ceramic water purifiers. Pottery Water
    Purification Media refers to a 99%, red firing clay, material and
    purifier device which has been saturated with silver solution, and is
    affordable and appropriate for the poor.
  • Proctor & Gamble - PURE WATER
    The Procter & Gamble Health Sciences Institute, in collaboration
    with the International Council of Nurses (ICN) and the US Centers for
    Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has developed a new household
    water treatment product called PuR Water Purifier. PuR has been field
    tested in six developing countries. Laboratory tests have shown it is
    effective in removing microbial and arsenic contaminants [1, 2]. The
    powdered product, which includes ferric sulphate and calcium
    hypochlorite, is delivered in small sachets. 
  • Tanzania - Filta Poa Household Filter
    As part of a month-long educational and promotional campaign on the
    importance of safe drinking water, a low-cost household water filter is
    being distributed in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The campaign was
    launched by DED, the German Development Services and Merrywater Ltd,
    which markets the filter called "Filta Poa". The filter, developed by the Swiss company Katadyn, uses no chemicals and can supply 20 litres of drinking water a day. Contact: Merrywater Ltd., Tanzania. Email: [email protected] or German Development Service (DED), Tanzania. Email: [email protected]



  • CDC - Safe Water System Handbook 
    This handbook shows how to implement household-based water treatment and safe storage projects. It is available in English and Spanish.

  • EHP -  A Framework for Action: Child Diarrhea Prevention
    The Environmental Health Project (EHP) advocates the Hygiene Improvement Framework—an integrated approach which links hardware and hygiene promotion and an enabling environment with strong organizational structures to prevent diarrheal disease. This framework is based on the recognition that behaviors—especially drinking safe water, sanitary disposal of feces, and washing hands with good technique at appropriate times—are the key determinants of diarrhea risk.

  • IRC – Hygiene Promotion Thematic Overview Paper (TOP)
    The audience for whom the Hygiene Promotion TOP has been written is wide. It consists of policy makers, practitioners, educators, trainers and researchers in the fields of health, hygiene, water supply and sanitation, but also those involved in broader programmes for the alleviation of rural or urban poverty.

  • USAID Water for the World - Constructing a household sand filter, 1982
    This Technical Note provides useful diagrams and instructions for constructing household sand filters.

  • WELL Technical Brief - Household water treatment: Part 1
    This Technical Brief discusses treatment by straining, storage, settlement, solar disinfection, chemical disinfection, and boiling.

  • WELL Technical Brief - Household water treatment: Part 2
    This Technical Brief covers treatment by coagulation, flocculation, filtration and solar distillation and covers aspects of the reduction of some chemical concentrations.

  • WHO - Domestic water quantity, service level and health
    This report provides WHO guidance on the quantity of domestic water that is required to promote good health. 

  • WHO - Managing water in the home: accelerated health gains from improved water supply  
    This report describes and critically reviews the various methods and systems for household water collection, treatment and storage. It also presents and critically reviews data on the ability of these household water treatment and storage methods to provide water that has improved microbiological quality and lower risk of waterborne diarrheal and other infectious diseases.

  • CDC - Safe Water System - The CDC Safewater website describes the Safewater Point-of-Use approach and provides links to publishes studies and a listing of Safewater projects.

  • FirstWater - FirstWater has 7 evaluation projects underway in 5 countries trying to answer the important questions (microbiological effectiveness, health impact, acceptability, affordability, etc.) on ceramic depth filtration.  This site is still under construction and will have comprehensive information on ceramic depth filtration in the near future.   

  • MIT Water and Sanitation - Web portal on household water treatment and urban and rural sanitation projects in developing countries.

  • Potters for Peace - Potters for Peace sponsors a Filtron Water Filter Project. It has an independent, nonprofit, international network of potters concerned with peace and justice issues. 

  • PSI (Population Services International) - The PSI website provides brief summaries of PSI water disinfection projects in Afghanistan, India, Madagascar, and Zambia.

  • SODIS (Solar Water Disinfection)  - Since 1991 EAWAG (The Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology) and SANDEC (EAWAG's Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries) conducted extensive laboratory and field tests to develop and test the Solar Water Disinfection Process (SODIS). At present SANDEC is providing information, technical support and advice to local institutions in developing countries for the worldwide promotion and dissemination of the Solar Water Disinfection Process, SODIS

  • WHO (Water, Sanitation and Health) - WHO works on aspects of water, sanitation and hygiene where the health burden is high, where interventions could make a major difference and where the present state of knowledge is poor.


The International Network to Promote Safe Household Water Treatment and Storage was established to bring together international organizations, governments, non-governmental organizations, private sector companies and international financial institutions to work to improve the health of vulnerable populations through domestic point-of-use water management. The network will help, in the short term, to accelerate the health benefits of clean water and sanitation through the adequate management and use of water in the home, particularly in populations with limited household access to these services. Led by the World Health Organization (WHO), members of the Network include representatives from the private sector (Procter & Gamble, Thames Water, Chlorine Chemistry Council, Suez, Coca-Cola, First Water), bilateral donors (USAID, DFID), universities and research institutes (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, University of Pretoria, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, EAWAG/SANDEC, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), University of North Carolina), non-governmental organizations (Oxfam, Population Service International, WaterAid, CARE, Red Cross) and professional associations (International Water Association, International Council of Nurses).



EHP is sponsored by the Office of Health, Infectious Diseases and Nutrition,
Bureau for Global Health, of the U.S. Agency for International Development
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Last modified June 17, 2004